India Elects its Prime Minister, Modi @ 3.0: Explained

By: Indu Saxena | June 9th 2024

Modi 3.0
Figure 1: PM Modi takes oath for the third consecutive term

Modi’s re-election for a third consecutive term as the Prime Minister, a historic feat, is a testament to his enduring popularity. However, it’s important to note that his party’s victory is not a standalone achievement but reliance on coalition partners to run the government successfully for the next five years.

The successful completion of the seven-phase election, a colossal democratic undertaking that spanned 543 seats of the Lok Sabha and engaged a staggering 965 million voters, is a striking demonstration of the robustness and scale of India’s democratic process, with 2600 political parties and 8000 candidates.

Three Crucial Playouts in 2024 Elections

The first playout is securing the third consecutive term for Modi-led Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) is historic moment in India’s parliamentary elections. Modi is sworn in as India’s Prime Minister for the third consecutive term. This is a historic moment for the BJP, as they have equaled the Grand Old Party Congress by securing a third term after India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru became the first Prime Minister after the British Raj in 1952. He won elections in 1957 and again in 1962. There is a comparison and contrast between the two historical moments in India’s election, with Modi’s re-election marking a continuation of his leadership and a potential shift in India’s political landscape.

The second payout is that the mandate has been unrelated to religious politics. It was expected that voters from Hindi speaking majority states (Northern States) would cast their votes in favor of BJP. On contrary, except Madhya Pradesh Modi’s party suffered a setback. The surprising result was from the prominent Hindi speaking state of Uttar Pradesh, where the biggest Hindu temple is built in Ayodhya. Modi inaugurated the Ram Temple in January 2024 during a global event. There was widespread belief that the BJP would secure the most seats in the state. However, Modi’s party lost not only the Ayodhya (Faizabad) seat but won just 33 out of 80 seats. However, The BJP emerged as the single largest party with 240 seats out of 543 seats.

          The voters’ rejection of religion-based politics in this election holds great significance, and it seems a case study for the international media and researchers who undoubtedly write about politics and Hindu Nationalism in India, contributing to a global understanding of the Indian political landscape.

          The third is the Re-emergence of coalition government. The new government led by Mr. Modi is an alliance government supported by the other national and regional parties. The BJP fell 32 seats short of the full majority of 272. The main coalition partners are the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) from Andhra Pradesh and the Janta Dal United (JDU) from Bihar, which have 16 and 12 seats, respectively. In addition, 15 other parties are supporting Modi 3.0 with the elected seats. Unlike Modi 1.0 and 2.0, Modi 3.0 heavily relies on its coalition partners, which could potentially impact the government’s policy-making and decision-making processes.

The opposition parties made a strong comeback in this election, posing a potential challenge for the Modi-led government in implementing its policies and maintaining its popularity. The Indian National Congress Party secured 99 seats, and the regional parties like the Samajwadi Party (Uttar Pradesh), Trinamool Congress (West Bengal), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil Nadu), and Aam Aadmi Party (in Punjab) demonstrated their stronghold in their states. This resurgence of the opposition parties not only reflects the diversity of Indian politics but also the complex dynamics that the Modi-led government will have to navigate. This means that the government’s actions and decisions will be influenced by a wider range of political perspectives, potentially leading to a more balanced and inclusive approach to governance.

What to Expect from Modi 3.0

In Modi’s upcoming third term, the primary focus will be to consolidate the party’s influence in domestic politics while also working to regain any lost ground. It is expected that Modi will persist in launching new comprehensive schemes aimed at providing employment opportunities, improving the quality of education, and enhancing the nation’s healthcare services. Furthermore, it remains uncertain how Modi will navigate the complexities of addressing concerns related to minorities and the “much-controversial” Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), National Register of Citizens (NRC), and Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Act, given that Modi will have to collaborate with alliance partners in the formation of the new government.

          Furthermore, on the international stage, Modi aims to prioritize efforts toward enhancing India’s diplomatic presence and power within the global arena. Modi has a bold vision for India’s consistent economic growth and the world’s largest demographic dividend to establish India as a potential global power role. This includes pushing for a permanent seat in the United Nations, positioning the leader’s role in the Global South, countering China’s assertiveness in the neighborhood, and proactive role in advancing multilateralism. India is highly anticipated to seek greater collaboration with the U.S., the Quad partners, and European countries.

Modi’s international vision is not just about India’s economic and military power but also about its soft power and cultural influence, which he believes can play a significant role in shaping India’s global standing.

Author’s Biography:

Dr. Indu Saxena is a Senior expert and Fellow at the Consortium of Indo-Pacific Researchers. She writes on U.S. India Relations, South Asia, and Indo-Pacific Security.